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Characterization and Remobilization of Sediment Deposits in Reservoirs

  • Sediment transport contributes to the movement of inorganic and organic material in rivers. The construction of a dam interrupts the continuity of this sediment transport through rivers, causing sediments to accumulate within the reservoir. Reservoirs can also act as carbon sinks and methane can be released when organic matter in the sediment is degraded under anoxic conditions. Reservoir sedimentation poses a great threat to the sustainability of reservoirs worldwide, and can emit the potent greenhouse gas methane into the atmosphere. Sediment management measures to rehabilitate silted reservoirs are required to achieve both better water quantity and quality, as well as to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This thesis aims at the improvement of sediment sampling techniques to characterize sediment deposits as a basis for accurate and efficient water jet dredging and to monitor the dredging efficiency by measuring the sediment concentration. To achieve this, we investigated freeze coring as a method to sample (gas-bearing) sediment in situ. The freeze cores from three reservoirs obtained were scanned using a non-destructive X-Ray CT scan technique. This allows the determination of sediment stratification and character-ization of gas bubbles to quantify methane emissions and serve as a basis for the identi-fication of specific (i.e. contaminated) sediment layers to be dredged. The results demon-strate the capability of freeze coring as a method for the characterization of (gas-bearing) sediment and overcomes certain limitations of commonly used gravity cores. Even though the core’s structure showed coring disturbances related to the freezing process, the general core integrity seems to not have been disturbed. For dredging purposes, we analyzed the impact pressure distribution and spray pattern of submerged cavitating wa-ter jets and determined the effects of impinging distances and angles, pump pressures and spray angles. We used an adapted Pressure Measurement Sensing technique to enhance the spatial distribution, which proved to be a comparatively easy-to-use meas-urement method for an improved understanding of the governing factors on the erosional capacity of cavitating water jets. Based on this data, the multiple linear regression model can be used to predict the impact pressure distribution of those water jets to achieve higher dredging accuracy and efficiency. To determine the dredging operational efficien-cy, we developed a semi-continuous automated measurement device to measure the sediment concentration of the slurry. This simple and robust device has lower costs, compared to traditional and surrogate sediment concentration measurement technolo-gies, and can be monitored and controlled remotely under a wide range of concentrations and grain-sizes, unaffected by entrained gas bubbles

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Author:Yannick Dück
Referee:Andreas Lorke, Christian Jokiel
Advisor:Andreas Lorke
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2019/08/06
Date of publication:2019/05/10
Publishing institution:Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Universitätsbibliothek
Granting institution:Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Fachbereich 7
Date of final exam:2019/05/10
Release Date:2019/08/08
Tag:Dichtemessung; Gefrierkernverfahren; Nassbaggerung; Sediment; Stauseeverlandung
Densimetric Measurement; Dredging; Freeze Coring; Reservoir Sedimentation; Sediment
Number of pages:185
Institutes:Fachbereich 7
BKL-Classification:43 Umweltforschung, Umweltschutz
Licence (German):License LogoEs gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht: § 53 UrhG