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Information on internal exposure for an improved effect assessment of organic compounds

Erlangen von Informationen über die interne Exposition für eine präzisere Effekt-Beurteilung von organischen Substanzen

  • To assess the effect of organic compounds on the aquatic environment, organisms are typically exposed to toxicant solutions and the adverse effects observed are linked to the concentration in the surrounding media. As compounds generally need to be taken up into the organism and distributed to the respective target sites for the induction of effects, the internal exposure is postulated to best represent the observed effects. The aim of this work is to contribute to an improved effect assessment of organic compounds by describing experimental and modelling methods to obtain information on the internal exposure of contaminants in organisms. Chapter 2 details a protocol for the determination of bioconcentration parameter for uptake (k1) and elimination (k2) of organic compounds in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. This enables the simulation of the internal exposure in zebrafish eggs from an ambient exposure concentration over time. The accumulated contaminant amount in zebrafish eggs was also determined, using a biomimetic extraction method. Different bioconc-entration estimation models for the determination of internal steady-state concentrat-ion of pharmaceutical compounds in fish to an environmental exposure are presented in Chapter 3. Bioconcentration factors were estimated from the compounds octanol: water partition coefficient (KOW) to determine the internal exposure to an ambient concentration. To assess the integral bioavailable fraction from the water and sediment phase of environmental contaminants for rooted aquatic plants, the internal exposure in river-living Myriophyllum aquaticum plants were determined over time, presented in Chapter 4. The plants were collected at different time points, with the accumulated organic contaminants determined using a liquid extraction method. In Chapter 5 a protocol was established to enable the non-invasive observation of effects in M. aquaticum plants exposed to contaminated sediments over time. Since the toxicant effects are a result of all uptake and distribution processes to the target site and the toxico-dynamic process leading to an observed effect during static exposure, information on the internal exposure could thus be gained from the temporal effect expression.rn

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Author:René Schreiber
Advisor:Dr. Ralf B. Schäfer
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2012/03/14
Date of publication:2012/03/14
Publishing institution:Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Universitätsbibliothek
Granting institution:Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Landau, Fachbereich 7
Date of final exam:2012/03/13
Release Date:2012/03/14
Tag:aquatic ecotoxicology; effect assessment; hazard prediction; toxicokinetics
GND Keyword:Bioassay; Pharmakokinetik; Toxikologische Bewertung
Number of pages:161 Seiten
Institutes:Fachbereich 7 / Fachbereich 7
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 57 Biowissenschaften; Biologie / 570 Biowissenschaften; Biologie
Licence (German):License LogoEs gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht: § 53 UrhG