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Investigating the environmental fate of iodinated X-ray contrast media in the urban water cycle

  • Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) are a group of emerging contaminants which have been detected at elevated concentrations in the aquatic environment. These compounds are excreted unmetabolized into hospital wastewater, and eventually treated at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The removal of ICM in WWTPs has not been very effective and therefore the ICM enter the aquatic environment via WWTP effluent discharges. Research has investigated the removal of selected ICM via abiotic and biotic processes, however limited work has attempted to determine the fate of these compounds once released into the environment. This thesis investigates the biotransformation of four selected ICM (diatrizoate, iohexol, iomeprol, and iopamidol) in aerobic soil-water and sediment-water systems as well as in different environmental matrices. Iohexol, iomeprol and iopamidol were biotransformed to several TPs in the aerobic batch systems, while no biotransformation was observed for the ionic ICM, diatrizoate. In total 34 biotransformation products (TPs) of the three non-ionic ICM were identified. The combination of semi-preparative HPLC-UV, hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (Qq-LIT-MS) was found to be an accurate approach for the structural elucidation of ICM TPs. The ICM TPs resulted in microbial transformation occurring at the side chains of the parent ICM, with the iodinated aromatic ring unmodified.

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Author:Jennifer Lynne Kormos
Subtitle (German):identification, characterization, and occurrence of biotransformation products
Referee:Thomas A. Ternes, Joachim Scholz
Document Type:Doctoral Thesis
Date of completion:2010/10/20
Date of publication:2010/10/20
Publishing institution:Universität Koblenz-Landau, Campus Koblenz, Universitätsbibliothek
Granting institution:Universität Koblenz, Fachbereich 3
Date of final exam:2010/06/30
Release Date:2010/10/20
Tag:Biotransformation; ICM; Unterwasserwelt
ICM; aquatic environment; biotransformation
Number of pages:225
Institutes:Fachbereich 3 / Institut für Integrierte Naturwissenschaften / Institut für Integrierte Naturwissenschaften, Abt. Chemie
Dewey Decimal Classification:5 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik / 50 Naturwissenschaften / 500 Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik
Licence (German):License LogoEs gilt das deutsche Urheberrecht: § 53 UrhG