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- Fachbereich 4 (11) (remove)

From September 4 to 11, 1992, a fiirst meeting between Ukrainian and German scientists interested in mathematical and computer modeling of social processes was held at Vorzel' near Kiev. The meeting had been planned for nearly three years by Igor V. Chernenko and Mikhail V. Kuz'min, then members of the research group on mathematical modeling in sociology at the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian Republic, and had to be postponed twice due to the political development in the former Soviet Union, but thanks to the organizers' perseverance (and in spite of a strike of the airport personell at Kiev Borispol Airport on the eve of the conference) the conference could at last be realized.rnThe main purpose of the conference was to discuss a synergetic interpretation of large-scale destructive social processes as catastrophic phenomena in self-organized systems.

This paper originates from the FP6 project "Emergence in the Loop (EMIL)" which explores the emergence of norms in artificial societies. Part of work package 3 of this project is a simulator that allows for simulation experiments in different scenarios, one of which is collaborative writing. The agents in this still prototypical implementation are able to perform certain actions, such as writing short texts, submitting them to a central collection of texts (the "encyclopaedia") or adding their texts to texts formerly prepared by other agents. At the same time they are able to comment upon others' texts, for instance checking for correct spelling, for double entries in the encyclopaedia or for plagiarisms. Findings of this kind lead to reproaching the original authors of blamable texts. Under certain conditions blamable activities are no longer performed after some time.

The natural and the artificial environment of mankind is of enormous complexity, and our means of understanding this complex environment are restricted unless we make use of simplified (but not oversimplified) dynamical models with the help of which we can explicate and communicate what we have understood in order to discuss among ourselves how to re-shape reality according to what our simulation models make us believe to be possible. Being both a science and an art, modelling and simulation isrnstill one of the core tools of extended thought experiments, and its use is still spreading into new application areas, particularly as the increasing availability of massive computational resources allows for simulating more and more complex target systems.
In the early summer of 2012, the 26th European Conference on Modelling andrnSimulation (ECMS) once again brings together the best experts and scientists in the field to present their ideas and research, and to discuss new challenges and directions for the field.
The 2012 edition of ECMS includes three new tracks, namely Simulation-BasedrnBusiness Research, Policy Modelling and Social Dynamics and Collective Behaviour, and extended the classical Finance and Economics track with Social Science. It attracted more than 110 papers, 125 participants from 21 countries and backgrounds ranging from electrical engineering to sociology.
This book was inspired by the event, and it was prepared to compile the most recent concepts, advances, challenges and ideas associated with modelling and computer simulation. It contains all papers carefully selected from the large number of submissions by the programme committee for presentation during the conference and is organised according to the still growing number tracks which shaped the event. The book is complemented by two invited pieces from other experts that discussed an emerging approach to modelling and a specialised application. rnrnWe hope these proceedings will serve as a reference to researchers and practitioners in the ever growing field as well as an inspiration to newcomers to the area of modelling and computer simulation. The editors are honoured and proud to present you with this carefully compiled selection of topics and publications in the field.

This paper describes results of the simulation of social objects, the dependence of schoolchildren's professional abilities on their personal characteristics. The simulation tool is the artificial neural network (ANN) technology. Results of a comparison of the time expense for training the ANN and for calculating the weight coefficients with serial and parallel algorithms, respectively, are presented.

An estimation of the number of multiplication and addition operations for training artififfcial neural networks by means of consecutive and parallel algorithms on a computer cluster is carried out. The evaluation of the efficiency of these algorithms is developed. The multilayer perceptron, the Volterra network and the cascade-correlation network are used as structures of artififfcial neural networks. Different methods of non-linear programming such as gradient and non-gradient methods are used for the calculation of the weight coefficients.

This paper describes a parallel algorithm for selecting activation functionsrnof an artifcial network. For checking the efficiency of this algorithm a count of multiplicative and additive operations is used.

The paper is devoted to solving a problem of the development of the website of Russian municipal policlinics and provides a selection of a set of elements which should be posted on a website. Such elements are necessary to provide citizens with correct and ergonomic e-services. The insufficient development of an infrastructure of institutions of public and municipal administration (particularly, healthcare institutions) in Russia made it necessary to analyze webresources used in different countries at different levels of providing medical services. The information resources of medical treatment facilities of the United Kingdom, of the United Statesrnof America and of the Federal Republic of Germany were researched separately for three existing economic models of healthcare. A set of criteria for the assessment of medical webresources was developed.

The estimation of various social objects is necessary in different fields of social life, science, education, etc. This estimation is usually used for forecasting, for evaluating of different properties and for other goals in complex man-machine systems. At present this estimation is possible by means of computer and mathematical simulation methods which is connected with significant difficulties, such as: - time-distributed process of receiving information about the object; - determination of a corresponding mathematical device and structure identification of the mathematical model; - approximation of the mathematical model to real data, generalization and parametric identification of the mathematical model; - identification of the structure of the links of the real social object. The solution of these problems is impossible without a special intellectual information system which combines different processes and allows predicting the behaviour of such an object. However, most existing information systems lead to the solution of only one special problem. From this point of view the development of a more general technology of designing such systems is very important. The technology of intellectual information system development for estimation and forecasting the professional ability of respondents in the sphere of education can be a concrete example of such a technology. Job orientation is necessary and topical in present economic conditions. It helps tornsolve the problem of expediency of investments to a certain sphere of education. Scientifically validated combined diagnostic methods of job orientation are necessary to carry out professional selection in higher education establishments. The requirements of a modern society are growing, with the earlier developed techniques being unable to correspond to them sufficiently. All these techniques lack an opportunity to account all necessary professional and personal characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to use a system of various tests. Thus, the development of new methods of job orientation for entrants is necessary. The information model of the process of job orientation is necessary for this purpose. Therefore, it would be desirable to have an information system capable of giving recommendations concerning the choice of a trade on the basis of complex personal characteristics of entrants.