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E-KRHyper is a versatile theorem prover and model generator for firstorder logic that natively supports equality. Inequality of constants, however, has to be given by explicitly adding facts. As the amount of these facts grows quadratically in the number of these distinct constants, the knowledge base is blown up. This makes it harder for a human reader to focus on the actual problem, and impairs the reasoning process. We extend E-Hyper- underlying E-KRhyper tableau calculus to avoid this blow-up by implementing a native handling for inequality of constants. This is done by introducing the unique name assumption for a subset of the constants (the so called distinct object identifiers). The obtained calculus is shown to be sound and complete and is implemented into the E-KRHyper system. Synthetic benchmarks, situated in the theory of arrays, are used to back up the benefits of the new calculus.

Dualizing marked Petri nets results in tokens for transitions (t-tokens). A marked transition can strictly not be enabled, even if there are sufficient "enabling" tokens (p-tokens) on its input places. On the other hand, t-tokens can be moved by the firing of places. This permits flows of t-tokens which describe sequences of non-events. Their benefiit to simulation is the possibility to model (and observe) causes and effects of non-events, e.g. if something is broken down.

In this paper, we demonstrate by means of two examples how to work with probability propagation nets (PPNs). The fiirst, which comes from the book by Peng and Reggia [1], is a small example of medical diagnosis. The second one comes from [2]. It is an example of operational risk and is to show how the evidence flow in PPNs gives hints to reduce high losses. In terms of Bayesian networks, both examples contain cycles which are resolved by the conditioning technique [3].

The paper deals with a specific introduction into probability propagation nets. Starting from dependency nets (which in a way can be considered the maximum information which follows from the directed graph structure of Bayesian networks), the probability propagation nets are constructed by joining a dependency net and (a slightly adapted version of) its dual net. Probability propagation nets are the Petri net version of Bayesian networks. In contrast to Bayesian networks, Petri nets are transparent and easy to operate. The high degree of transparency is due to the fact that every state in a process is visible as a marking of the Petri net. The convenient operability consists in the fact that there is no algorithm apart from the firing rule of Petri net transitions. Besides the structural importance of the Petri net duality there is a semantic matter; common sense in the form of probabilities and evidencebased likelihoods are dual to each other.

Towards Improving the Understanding of Image Semantics by Gaze-based Tag-to-Region Assignments
(2011)

Eye-trackers have been used in the past to identify visual foci in images, find task-related image regions, or localize affective regions in images. However, they have not been used for identifying specific objects in images. In this paper, we investigate whether it is possible to assign image regions showing specific objects with tags describing these objects by analyzing the users' gaze paths. To this end, we have conducted an experiment with 20 subjects viewing 50 image-tag-pairs each. We have compared the tag-to-region assignments for nine existing and four new fixation measures. In addition, we have investigated the impact of extending region boundaries, weighting small image regions, and the number of subjects viewing the images. The paper shows that a tag-to-region assignment with an accuracy of 67% can be achieved by using gaze information. In addition, we show that multiple regions on the same image can be differentiated with an accuracy of 38%.

Knowledge compilation is a common technique for propositional logic knowledge bases. A given knowledge base is transformed into a normal form, for which queries can be answered efficiently. This precompilation step is expensive, but it only has to be performed once. We apply this technique to concepts defined in the Description Logic ALC. We introduce a normal form called linkless normal form for ALC concepts and discuss an efficient satisability test for concepts given in this normal form. Furthermore, we will show how to efficiently calculate uniform interpolants of precompiled concepts w.r.t. a given signature.

The processing of data is often restricted by contractual and legal requirements for protecting privacy and IPRs. Policies provide means to control how and by whom data is processed. Conditions of policies may depend on the previous processing of the data. However, existing policy languages do not provide means to express such conditions. In this work we present a formal model and language allowing for specifying conditions based on the history of data processing. We base the model and language on XACML.

Dieses Dokument schlägt ein Konzept für eine Personal Key Infrastruktur in iCity vor. Über ein Trust Center (TC) ausgestellte Zertiffkate gewährleisten einen sicheren Schlüsselaustausch mit nachweisbarer Authentisierung des Kommunikationspartners, Abhörsicherheit sowie Unverf älschtheit und Nachweisbarkeit der Nachrichten. Das gemeinsam vertrauensw ürdige TC muss während der Kommunikation nicht erreichbar sein. Es erhält lediglich öffentliche Informationen. Das Konzept stellt mehrere Sicherheitsstufen vor, die sichere Identiffkation und Anonymität unterschiedlich gewichten.

Conventional security infrastructures in the Internet cannot be directly adopted to ambient systems, especially if based on short-range communication channels: Personal, mobile devices are used and the participants are present during communication, so privacy protection is a crucial issue. As ambient systems cannot rely on an uninterrupted connection to a Trust Center, certiffed data has to be veriffed locally. Security techniques have to be adjusted to the special environment. This paper introduces a public key infrastructure (PKI) to provide secure communication channels with respect to privacy, confidentiality, data integrity, non-repudiability, and user or device authentication. It supports three certiffcate levels with a different balance between authenticity and anonymity. This PKI is currently under implementation as part of the iCity project.

Hybrid automata are used as standard means for the specification and analysis of dynamical systems. Several researches have approached them to formally specify reactive Multi-agent systems situated in a physical environment, where the agents react continuously to their environment. The specified systems, in turn, are formally checked with the help of existing hybrid automata verification tools. However, when dealing with multi-agent systems, two problems may be raised. The first problem is a state space problem raised due to the composition process, where the agents have to be parallel composed into an agent capturing all possible behaviors of the multi-agent system prior to the verification phase. The second problem concerns the expressiveness of verification tools when modeling and verifying certain behaviors. Therefore, this paper tackles these problems by showing how multi-agent systems, specified as hybrid automata, can be modeled and verified using constraint logic programming(CLP). In particular, a CLP framework is presented to show how the composition of multi-agent behaviors can be captured dynamically during the verification phase. This can relieve the state space complexity that may occur as a result of the composition process. Additionally, the expressiveness of the CLP model flexibly allows not only to model multi-agent systems, but also to check various properties by means of the reachability analysis. Experiments are promising to show the feasibility of our approach.

An empirical study to evaluate the location of advertisement panels by using a mobile marketing tool
(2009)

The efficiency of marketing campaigns is a precondition for business success. This paper discusses a technique to transfer advertisement content vie Bluetooth technology and collects market research information at the same time. Conventional advertisement media were enhanced by devices to automatically measure the number, distance, frequency and exposure time of passersby, making information available to evaluate both the wireless media as well as the location in general. This paper presents a study analyzing these data. A cryptographic one-way function protects privacy during data acquisition.

Hybrid systems are the result of merging the two most commonly used models for dynamical systems, namely continuous dynamical systems defined by differential equations and discrete-event systems defined by automata. One can view hybrid systems as constrained systems, where the constraints describe the possible process flows, invariants within states, and transitions on the one hand, and to characterize certain parts of the state space (e.g. the set of initial states, or the set of unsafe states) on the other hand. Therefore, it is advantageous to use constraint logic programming (CLP) as an approach to model hybrid systems. In this paper, we provide CLP implementations, that model hybrid systems comprising several concurrent hybrid automata, whose size is only straight proportional to the size of the given system description. Furthermore, we allow different levels of abstraction by making use of hierarchies as in UML statecharts. In consequence, the CLP model can be used for analyzing and testing the absence or existence of (un)wanted behaviors in hybrid systems. Thus in summary, we get a procedure for the formal verification of hybrid systems by model checking, employing logic programming with constraints.

The lack of a formal event model hinders interoperability in distributed event-based systems. Consequently, we present in this paper a formal model of events, called F. The model bases on an upper-level ontology and pro-vides comprehensive support for all aspects of events such as time and space, objects and persons involved, as well as the structural aspects, namely mereological, causal, and correlational relationships. The event model provides a flexible means for event composition, modeling of event causality and correlation, and allows for representing different interpretations of the same event. The foundational event model F is developed in a pattern-oriented approach, modularized in different ontologies, and can be easily extended by domain specifific ontologies.

Avoidance of routing loops
(2009)

We introduce a new routing algorithm which can detect routing loops by evaluating routing updates more thoroughly. Our new algorithm is called Routing with Metric based Topology Investigation (RMTI), which is based on the simple Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and is compatible to all RIP versions. In case of a link failure, a network can reorganize itself if there are redundant links available. Redundant links are only available in a network system like the internet if the topology contains loops. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize and to prevent routing loops. A routing loop can be seen as a circular trace of a routing update information which returns to the same router, either directly from the neighbor router or via a loop topology. Routing loops could consume a large amount of network bandwidth and could impact the endtoend performance of the network. Our RMTI approach is capable to improve the efficiency of Distance Vector Routing.

Semantic desktop environments aim at improving the effectiveness and efficiency of users carrying out daily tasks within their personal information management infrastructure (PIM). They support the user by transferring and exploiting the explicit semantics of data items across different PIM applications. Whether such an approach does indeed reach its aim of facilitating users" life andâ€”if soâ€”to which extent, however, remains an open question that we address in this paper with the first summative evaluation of a semantic desktop approach. We approach the research question exploiting our own semantic desktop infrastructure, X-COSIM. As data corpus, we have used over 100 emails and 50 documents extracted from the organizers of a conference-like event at our university. The evaluation has been carried out with 18 subjects. We have developed a test environment to evaluate COSIMail and COSIFile, two semantic PIM applications based on X-COSIM. As result, we have found a significant improvement for typical PIM tasks compared to a standard desktop environment.

Querying for meta knowledge
(2008)

The Semantic Web is based on accessing and reusing RDF data from many different sources, which one may assign different levels of authority and credibility. Existing Semantic Web query languages, like SPARQL, have targeted the retrieval, combination and reuse of facts, but have so far ignored all aspects of meta knowledge, such as origins, authorship, recency or certainty of data, to name but a few. In this paper, we present an original, generic, formalized and implemented approach for managing many dimensions of meta knowledge, like source, authorship, certainty and others. The approach re-uses existing RDF modeling possibilities in order to represent meta knowledge. Then, it extends SPARQL query processing in such a way that given a SPARQL query for data, one may request meta knowledge without modifying the query proper. Thus, our approach achieves highly flexible and automatically coordinated querying for data and meta knowledge, while completely separating the two areas of concern.

This volume contains those research papers presented at the Second International Conference on Tests and Proofs (TAP 2008) that were not included in the main conference proceedings. TAP was the second conference devoted to the convergence of proofs and tests. It combines ideas from both areas for the advancement of software quality. To prove the correctness of a program is to demonstrate, through impeccable mathematical techniques, that it has no bugs; to test a program is to run it with the expectation of discovering bugs. On the surface, the two techniques seem contradictory: if you have proved your program, it is fruitless to comb it for bugs; and if you are testing it, that is surely a sign that you have given up on any hope of proving its correctness. Accordingly, proofs and tests have, since the onset of software engineering research, been pursued by distinct communities using rather different techniques and tools. And yet the development of both approaches leads to the discovery of common issues and to the realization that each may need the other. The emergence of model checking has been one of the first signs that contradiction may yield to complementarity, but in the past few years an increasing number of research efforts have encountered the need for combining proofs and tests, dropping earlier dogmatic views of their incompatibility and taking instead the best of what each of these software engineering domains has to offer. The first TAP conference (held at ETH Zurich in February 2007) was an attempt to provide a forum for the cross-fertilization of ideas and approaches from the testing and proving communities. For the 2008 edition we found the Monash University Prato Centre near Florence to be an ideal place providing a stimulating environment. We wish to sincerely thank all the authors who submitted their work for consideration. And we would like to thank the Program Committee members as well as additional referees for their great effort and professional work in the review and selection process. Their names are listed on the following pages. In addition to the contributed papers, the program included three excellent keynote talks. We are grateful to Michael Hennell (LDRA Ltd., Cheshire, UK), Orna Kupferman (Hebrew University, Israel), and Elaine Weyuker (AT&T Labs Inc., USA) for accepting the invitation to address the conference. Two very interesting tutorials were part of TAP 2008: "Parameterized Unit Testing with Pex" (J. de Halleux, N. Tillmann) and "Integrating Verification and Testing of Object-Oriented Software" (C. Engel, C. Gladisch, V. Klebanov, and P. Rümmer). We would like to express our thanks to the tutorial presenters for their contribution. It was a team effort that made the conference so successful. We are grateful to the Conference Chair and the Steering Committee members for their support. And we particularly thank Christoph Gladisch, Beate Körner, and Philipp Rümmer for their hard work and help in making the conference a success. In addition, we gratefully acknowledge the generous support of Microsoft Research Redmond, who financed an invited speaker.

The University of Koblenz-Landau would like to apply for participation in the RoboCup Mixed Reality League in Suzhou, China 2008. Our team is composed of ten team members and two supervisors. All members are graduate students of Computational Visualistics. Our supervisors are Ph.D. candidates currently researching in the working groups of artificial intelligence and computer graphics.

Im Rahmen von Projekten haben die Mitarbeiter in einem Unternehmen oft komplexe Problemstellungen zu bearbeiten, für die es keine objektiv richtigen oder falschen Lösungen gibt. Stattdessen werden im Rahmen der Entwurfs- und Entscheidungsprozesse mehrere Lösungsvorschläge erarbeitet um dann unter Abwägung von Pro- und Contra-Argumenten eine möglichst optimale Lösung zu finden.