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The estimation of various social objects is necessary in different fields of social life, science, education, etc. This estimation is usually used for forecasting, for evaluating of different properties and for other goals in complex man-machine systems. At present this estimation is possible by means of computer and mathematical simulation methods which is connected with significant difficulties, such as: - time-distributed process of receiving information about the object; - determination of a corresponding mathematical device and structure identification of the mathematical model; - approximation of the mathematical model to real data, generalization and parametric identification of the mathematical model; - identification of the structure of the links of the real social object. The solution of these problems is impossible without a special intellectual information system which combines different processes and allows predicting the behaviour of such an object. However, most existing information systems lead to the solution of only one special problem. From this point of view the development of a more general technology of designing such systems is very important. The technology of intellectual information system development for estimation and forecasting the professional ability of respondents in the sphere of education can be a concrete example of such a technology. Job orientation is necessary and topical in present economic conditions. It helps tornsolve the problem of expediency of investments to a certain sphere of education. Scientifically validated combined diagnostic methods of job orientation are necessary to carry out professional selection in higher education establishments. The requirements of a modern society are growing, with the earlier developed techniques being unable to correspond to them sufficiently. All these techniques lack an opportunity to account all necessary professional and personal characteristics. Therefore, it is necessary to use a system of various tests. Thus, the development of new methods of job orientation for entrants is necessary. The information model of the process of job orientation is necessary for this purpose. Therefore, it would be desirable to have an information system capable of giving recommendations concerning the choice of a trade on the basis of complex personal characteristics of entrants.

An estimation of the number of multiplication and addition operations for training artififfcial neural networks by means of consecutive and parallel algorithms on a computer cluster is carried out. The evaluation of the efficiency of these algorithms is developed. The multilayer perceptron, the Volterra network and the cascade-correlation network are used as structures of artififfcial neural networks. Different methods of non-linear programming such as gradient and non-gradient methods are used for the calculation of the weight coefficients.

From September 4 to 11, 1992, a fiirst meeting between Ukrainian and German scientists interested in mathematical and computer modeling of social processes was held at Vorzel' near Kiev. The meeting had been planned for nearly three years by Igor V. Chernenko and Mikhail V. Kuz'min, then members of the research group on mathematical modeling in sociology at the Institute of Sociology of the Academy of Science of the Ukrainian Republic, and had to be postponed twice due to the political development in the former Soviet Union, but thanks to the organizers' perseverance (and in spite of a strike of the airport personell at Kiev Borispol Airport on the eve of the conference) the conference could at last be realized.rnThe main purpose of the conference was to discuss a synergetic interpretation of large-scale destructive social processes as catastrophic phenomena in self-organized systems.

This paper originates from the FP6 project "Emergence in the Loop (EMIL)" which explores the emergence of norms in artificial societies. Part of work package 3 of this project is a simulator that allows for simulation experiments in different scenarios, one of which is collaborative writing. The agents in this still prototypical implementation are able to perform certain actions, such as writing short texts, submitting them to a central collection of texts (the "encyclopaedia") or adding their texts to texts formerly prepared by other agents. At the same time they are able to comment upon others' texts, for instance checking for correct spelling, for double entries in the encyclopaedia or for plagiarisms. Findings of this kind lead to reproaching the original authors of blamable texts. Under certain conditions blamable activities are no longer performed after some time.