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Simulation von Schnee
(2015)

Physic simulations allow the creation of dynamic scenes on the computer. Computer generated images become lively and find use in movies, games and engineering applications. GPGPU techniques make use of the graphics card to simulate physics. The simulation of dynamic snow is still little researched. The Material Point Method is the first technique which is capable of showing the dynamics andrncharacteristics of snow.
The hybrid use of Lagrangian particles and a regular cartesian grid enables solving of partial differential equations. Therefore articles are transformed to the grid. The grid velocities can then be updated with the calculation of gradients in an FEM-manner (finite element method). Finally grid node velocities are weight back to the particles to move them across the scene. This method is coupled with a constitutive model to cover the dynamic nature of snow. This include collisions and breaking.
This bachelor thesis connects the recent developments in GPGPU techniques of OpenGL with the Material Point Method to efficiently simulate visually compelling, dynamic snow scenes.

Ray Tracing enables a close to reality rendering implementation of a modelled scene. Because of its functioning, it is able to display optical phenomena and complex lighting. Though, numerous computations per pixel have to be done. In practice implementations can not achieve computer graphics" aim of real-time rendering close to 60 frames per second. Current Graphics Processing Units (GPU) allows high execution parallelism of general-purpose computations. By using the graphics-API OpenGL this parallelism can be achieved and it is possible to design and realize a Ray-Tracer, which operates entirely on the GPU. The developed approach will be extended by an Uniform Grid - a Ray-Tracing acceleration structure. Hence, a speed-up is expected.
This thesis` purpose is the implementation of Ray-Tracer, which operates completely on the GPU, and its expansion by integrating an Uniform Grid. Afterwards, the evaluation of maximum achievable performance takes place. Possible problems regarding GPU-programming will be identified and analysed.

The following thesis analyses the functionality and programming capabilitiesrnof compute shaders. For this purpose, chapter 2 gives an introductionrnto compute shaders by showing how they work and how they can be programmed. In addition, the interaction of compute shaders and OpenGL 4.3 is shown through two introductory examples. Chapter 3 describes an NBodyrnsimulation that has been implemented in order to show the computational power of compute shaders and the use of shared memory. Then it is shown in chapter 4 how compute shaders can be used for physical simulationsrnand where problems may arise. In chapter 5 a specially conceived and implemented algorithm for detecting lines in images is described and then compared with the Hough transform. Lastly, a final conclusion is drawn in chapter 6.