The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of addressable, physical objects that contain embedded sensing, communication and actuating technologies to sense and interact with their environment (Geschickter 2015). Like every novel paradigm, the IoT sparks interest throughout all domains both in theory and practice, resulting in the development of systems pushing technology to its limits. These limits become apparent when having to manage an increasing number of Things across various contexts. A plethora of IoT architecture proposals have been developed and prototype products, such as IoT platforms, been introduced. However, each of these architectures and products apply their very own interpretations of an IoT architecture and its individual components so that IoT is currently more an Intranet of Things than an Internet of Things (Zorzi et al. 2010). Thus, this thesis aims to develop a common understanding of the elements forming an IoT architecture and provide high-level specifications in the form of a Holistic IoT Architecture Framework.
Design Science Research (DSR) is used in this thesis to develop the architecture framework based on the pertinent literature. The development of the Holistic IoT Architecture Framework includes the identification of two new IoT Architecture Perspectives that became apparent during the analysis of the IoT architecture proposals identified in the extant literature. While applying these novel perspectives, the need for a new component for the architecture framework, which was merely implicitly mentioned in the literature, became obvious as well. The components of various IoT architecture proposals as well as the novel component, the Thing Management System, were combined, consolidated and related to each other to develop the Holistic IoT Architecture Framework. Subsequently, it was shown that the specifications of the architecture framework are suitable to guide the implementation of a prototype.
This contribution provides a common understanding of the basic building blocks, actors and relations of an IoT architecture.
Coordination and awareness mechanisms are important in systems for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and traditional groupware systems. It has been a key focus of research into collaborative groupware and its capability to enable people to efficiently collaborate and coordinate work. Until now, no classification of the mechanisms has been undertaken to identify commonalities and differences in coordination and awareness mechanisms and to show their significance in collaborative environments. In addition, there is a little investigation of coordination and awareness mechanisms in new forms of groupware such as socially enabled Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS). Indeed, both in science and in practices, ECS incorporating social software have become increasingly important. Based on the combination of traditional groupware and social software, ECS also include coordination and awareness mechanisms that may simplify collaboration, but these have not yet been investigated.
Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify coordination and awareness mechanisms in the academic literature to provide a general overview of those mechanisms examples. Additionally, this thesis aims to classify the mechanism examples. Based on a deep literature analysis, concepts described in literature are chosen and applied with the intension to analyse the mechanisms and to reach a classification. Based on the classification of the identified mechanisms their commonalities and differences are examined and described to gain a better understanding of them. For illustration purpose, examples of coordination and awareness mechanisms and their application are portrayed. The mechanisms examples refer to the classification groups derived. The selection of the mechanisms for the visualization is based on significant differences in their functionality. Subsequently, the selected mechanisms, more based on traditional groupware, are checked to a limited extend whether they can be found in socially enabled ECS. The collaborative platform of IBM Connections serves as a practical example of ECS incorporating social software. IBM Connections is used at the University of Koblenz to run the platform "UniConnect". On the platform it is investigated which of the identified mechanisms examples of the literature are applied in IBM Connections and which additional mechanisms are created by users. This work is the first step in the study of coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially-enabled ECS. In addition, it is expected to detect new mechanisms which are used while the social factor to collaborative work is new.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine and collect coordination and awareness mechanisms examples in literature to analyse them. Additionally, the purpose is to provide a first overview of mechanisms and to classify them by investigating their commonalities. Beside this thesis should give incentive for further investigations to investigate coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially integrated ECS.
This thesis analyzes the online attention towards scientists and their research topics. The studies compare the attention dynamics towards the winners of important scientific prizes with scientists who did not receive a prize. Web signals such as Wikipedia page views, Wikipedia edits, and Google Trends were used as a proxy for online attention. One study focused on the time between the creation of the article about a scientist and their research topics. It was discovered that articles about research topics were created closer to the articles of prize winners than to scientists who did not receive a prize. One possible explanation could be that the research topics are more closely related to the scientist who got an award. This supports that scientists who received the prize introduced the topics to the public. Another study considered the public attention trends towards the related research topics before and after a page of a scientist was created. It was observed that after a page about a scientist was created, research topics of prize winners received more attention than the topics of scientists who did not receive a prize. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that Nobel Prize winners get a lower amount of attention before receiving the prize than the potential nominees from the list of Citation Laureates of Thompson Reuters. Also, their popularity is going down faster after receiving it. It was also shown that it is difficult to predict the prize winners based on the attention dynamics towards them.
The purpose of this research is to examine various existing cloud-based Internet of Things (IoT) development platforms and evaluate one platform (IBM Watson IoT) in detail using a use case scenario. Internet of Things IoT is an emerging technology that has a vision of interconnecting the virtual world (e.g. clouds, social networks) and the physical world (e.g. device, cars, fridge, people, animals) through the Internet technology. For example, the IoT concept of smart cities which has the objectives to improve the efficiency and development of business, social and cultural services in the city, can be achieved by using sensors, actuators, clouds and mobile devices (IEEE, 2015). A sensor (e.g. temperature sensor) in the building (global world) can send the real-time data to the IoT cloud platform (virtual world), where it can be monitored, stored, analysed, or used to trigger some action (e.g. turn on the cooling system in the building if temperature exceeds a threshold limit). Although, the IoT creates vast opportunities in different areas (e.g. transportation, healthcare, manufacturing industry), it also brings challenges such as standardisation, interoperability, scalability, security and privacy. In this research report, IoT concepts and related key issues are discussed.
The focus of this research is to compare various cloud-based IoT platforms in order to understand the business and technical features they offer. The cloud-based IoT platforms from IBM, Google, Microsoft, PTC and Amazon have been studied.
To design the research, the Design Science Research (DSR) methodology has been followed, and to model the real-time IoT system the IOT-A modelling approach has been used.
The comparison of different cloud based IoT development platforms shows that all of the studied platforms provide basic IoT functionalities such as connecting the IoT devices to the cloud based IoT platform, collecting data from the IoT devices, data storage and data analytics. However, the IBM’s IoT platform appears to have an edge over the other platforms studied in this research because of the integrated run-time environment which also makes it more developer friendly. Therefore, IBM Watson IoT for Bluemix is selected for further examination of its capabilities. The IBM Watson IoT for Bluemix offerings include analytics, risk management, connect and information management. A use case was implemented to assess the capabilities that IBM Watson IoT platform offers. The digital artifacts (i.e. applications) are produced to evaluate the IBM’s IoT solution. The results show that IBM offers a very scalable, developer and deployment friendly IoT platform. Its cognitive, contextual and predictive analytics provide a promising functionality that can be used to gain insights from the IoT data transmitted by the sensors and other IoT devices.
Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war es, eine Methode zu entwickeln und zu evaluieren, die es Unternehmen ermöglicht, Werkzeuge des klassischen Dialogmarketings über das Internet zu nutzen. Dazu wurde ein Prototyp einer Internetseite mit erweiterter Echtzeit-Interaktion (eEI) implementiert und anhand eines Nutzertests evaluiert. Hauptbestandteil der Evaluationsmethodik war die auf dem SERVQUAL-Model basierende, fünfdimensionale Messung der "e-service quality" nach Gwo-Guang Lee und Hsiu-Fen Lin. Die statistische Auswertung des Nutzertests hat eine signifikante und positive Korrelation zwischen der im Rahmen dieser Arbeit entwickelten, erweiterten Echtzeit-Interaktion und der Nutzerzufriedenheit gezeigt. Vor der eigentlichen Realisierung der eEI wurde die Akzeptanz bisher eingesetzter Verfahren, auf der Grundlage des "Technology Acceptance Model" nach Fred D. Davis, geprüft.
While Virtual Reality has been around for decades it gained new life in recent years. The release of the first consumer hardware devices allows fully immersive and affordable VR for the user at home. This availability lead to a new focus of research on technical problems as well as psychological effects. The concepts of presence, describing the feeling of being in the virtual place, body ownership and their impact are central topics in research for a long time and still not fully understood.
To enable further research in the area of Mixed Reality, we want to introduce a framework that integrates the users body and surroundings inside a visual coherent virtual environment. As one of two main aspects we want to merge real and virtual objects to a shared environment in a way such that they are no longer visually distinguishable. To achieve this the main focus is not supposed to be on a high graphical fidelity but on a simplified representation of reality. The essential question is, what level of visual realism is necessary to create a believable mixed reality environment that induces a sense of presence in the user? The second aspect considers the integration of virtual persons. Can characters be recorded and replayed in a way such that they are perceived as believable entities of the world and therefore act as a part of the users environment?
The purpose of this thesis was the development of a framework called Mixed Reality Embodiment Platform. This inital system implements fundamental functionalities to be used as a basis for future extensions to the framework. We also provide a first application that enables user studies to evaluate the framework and contribute to aforementioned research questions.
In dieser Arbeit wurde unter Verwendung der Programmiersprache R ein Prototyp zur Erstellung einer Recommendation Engine zur Aufdeckung von Assoziationen innerhalb einer gegebenen Datenmenge entwickelt. Die Berechnung der Assoziationen findet hierbei in Echtzeit statt und des Weiteren wurden die Analysefunktionen generisch programmiert, um ein schnelles Einbinden und einfaches Parametrisieren von Datensätzen zu ermöglichen. Die Entwicklung fußte auf der grundlegenden Motivation, Data Mining Methoden wie das Assoziationsverfahren teilweise zu automatisieren, um damit generierte Lösungen effizienter umsetzen zu können. Der Entwicklungsprozess war insgesamt erfolgreich, sodass alle Grundfunktionalitäten im Sinne eines evolutionären Prototypings vorhanden sind.
The publication of open source software aims to support the reuse, the distribution and the general utilization of software. This can only be enabled by the correct usage of open source software licenses. Therefore associations provide a multitude of open source software licenses with different features, of which a developer can choose, to regulate the interaction with his software. Those licenses are the core theme of this thesis.
After an extensive literature research, two general research questions are elaborated in detail. First, a license usage analysis of licenses in the open source sector is applied, to identify current trends and statistics. This includes questions concerning the distribution of licenses, the consistency in their usage, their association over a period of time and their publication.
Afterwards the recommendation of licenses for specific projects is investigated. Therefore, a recommendation logic is presented, which includes several influences on a suitable license choice, to generate an at most applicable recommendation. Besides the exact features of a license of which a user can choose, different methods of ranking the recommendation results are proposed. This is based on the examination of the current situation of open source licensing and license suggestion. Finally, the logic is evaluated on the exemplary use-case of the 101companies project.
Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Betrachtung der Rolle von Vertrauen zwischen den Kapitalnehmern und Kapitalgebern auf einer der größten Crowdfunding-Plattformen, Kickstarter. Kernthema ist die Beantwortung der Forschungsfragen, wie das Vertrauen zwischen den Kapitalgebern und Kapitalnehmern im Kontext von Crowdfunding entsteht, welche Faktoren das Maß von Vertrauen in dieser Beziehung beeinflussen und welche Signale für die Vertrauensbildung verantwortlich sind. Das Ziel dieser Arbeit besteht darin, das von Zerwas, Kilian und von Kortzfleisch 2015 vorgestellte konzeptuelle Modell der Einflussfaktoren von Vertrauen im Kontext von Crowdfunding aus Sicht der Kapitalgeber zu überprüfen und gegebenenfalls zu erweitern.
Auf Grundlage einer Literaturrecherche und qualitativer, leitfadenorientierter Interviews werden die gesammelten Daten diskutiert, bestehende Faktoren verifiziert und weiterführend neue Faktoren und Signale identifiziert, die die Bildung von Vertrauen auf Crowdfunding-Plattformen beeinflussen.
Als Ergebnis werden die Überarbeitung sowie Erweiterung des Ausgangsmodells um die neuen Faktoren geographische Nähe, Vermittlerqualität und Verständnis vom Konzept Crowdfunding vorgeschlagen. Anhand der Häufigkeit der Erwähnung und Relevanz der Faktoren und beeinflussenden Signale in den durchgeführten Interviews wird weiterführend eine Gewichtung der Einzelfaktoren vorgenommen. Abschließend werden Implikationen und Bedeutung für Wissenschaft und Forschung diskutiert.
Eine der grundlegenden Entscheidungen bei der Entwicklung eines Systems ist die Darstellung der Daten. Üblicherweise werden in der Computergrafik Objekte durch Dreiecke dargestellt. Allerdings existieren viele weitere Varianten, welche andere Stärken und Schwächen besitzen. In dieser Arbeit soll die Repräsentation von Objekten durch Distanzfelder untersucht werden. Distanzfelder sind Funktionen, welche für jeden Raumpunkt die Distanz zum nächsten Oberflächenpunkt angeben. Aus dieser einfachen Beschreibung lassen sich viele interessante Eigenschaften ableiten, welche zur Darstellung einer Vielzahl von Formen, Operationen und Effekten genutzt werden können. Es wird ein Überblick über die Hintergründe und Methoden des Distanzfeld-Renderings gegeben. Weiterhin werden verschiedene neue oder erweiterte Ansätze vorgestellt, etwa zur Darstellung impliziter Oberflächen, approximativer indirekter Beleuchtung oder einer GPU Implementation.