Pelagic oxyclines, the transition zone between oxygen rich surface waters and oxygen depleted deep waters, are a common characteristic of eutrophic lakes during summer stratification. They can have tremendous effects on the biodiversity and the ecosystem functioning of lakes and, to add insult to injury, are expected to become more frequent and more pronounced as climate warming progresses. On these grounds, this thesis endeavors to advance the understanding of formation, persistence, and consequences of pelagic oxyclines: We test, whether the formation of metalimnetic oxygen minima is intrinsically tied to a locally enhanced oxygen consuming process, investigate the relative importance of vertical physical oxygen transport and biochemical oxygen consumption for the persistence of pelagic oxyclines, and finally assess their potential consequences for whole lake cycling. To pursue these objectives, the present thesis nearly exclusively resorts to in situ measurements. Field campaigns were conducted at three lakes in Germany featuring different types of oxyclines and resolved either a short (hours to days) or a long (weeks to months) time scale. Measurements comprised temperature, current velocity, and concentrations of oxygen and reduced substances in high temporal and vertical resolution. Additionally, vertical transport was estimated by applying the eddy correlation technique within the pelagic region for the first time. The thesis revealed, that the formation of metalimnetic oxygen minima does not necessarily depend on locally enhanced oxygen depletion, but can solely result from gradients and curvatures of oxygen concentration and depletion and their relative position to each other. Physical oxygen transport was found to be relevant for oxycline persistence when it considerably postponed anoxia on a long time scale. However, its influence on oxygen dynamics was minor on short time scales, although mixing and transport were highly variable. Biochemical consumption always dominated the fate of oxygen in pelagic oxyclines. It was primarily determined by the oxidative breakdown of organic matter originating from the epilimnion, whereas in meromictic lakes, the oxidation of reduced substances dominated. Beyond that, the results of the thesis emphasize that pelagic oxyclines can be a hotspot of mineralization and, hence, short-circuit carbon and nutrient cycling in the upper part of the water column. Overall, the present thesis highlights the importance of considering physical transport as well as biochemical cycling in future studies.
Coordination and awareness mechanisms are important in systems for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and traditional groupware systems. It has been a key focus of research into collaborative groupware and its capability to enable people to efficiently collaborate and coordinate work. Until now, no classification of the mechanisms has been undertaken to identify commonalities and differences in coordination and awareness mechanisms and to show their significance in collaborative environments. In addition, there is a little investigation of coordination and awareness mechanisms in new forms of groupware such as socially enabled Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS). Indeed, both in science and in practices, ECS incorporating social software have become increasingly important. Based on the combination of traditional groupware and social software, ECS also include coordination and awareness mechanisms that may simplify collaboration, but these have not yet been investigated.
Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify coordination and awareness mechanisms in the academic literature to provide a general overview of those mechanisms examples. Additionally, this thesis aims to classify the mechanism examples. Based on a deep literature analysis, concepts described in literature are chosen and applied with the intension to analyse the mechanisms and to reach a classification. Based on the classification of the identified mechanisms their commonalities and differences are examined and described to gain a better understanding of them. For illustration purpose, examples of coordination and awareness mechanisms and their application are portrayed. The mechanisms examples refer to the classification groups derived. The selection of the mechanisms for the visualization is based on significant differences in their functionality. Subsequently, the selected mechanisms, more based on traditional groupware, are checked to a limited extend whether they can be found in socially enabled ECS. The collaborative platform of IBM Connections serves as a practical example of ECS incorporating social software. IBM Connections is used at the University of Koblenz to run the platform "UniConnect". On the platform it is investigated which of the identified mechanisms examples of the literature are applied in IBM Connections and which additional mechanisms are created by users. This work is the first step in the study of coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially-enabled ECS. In addition, it is expected to detect new mechanisms which are used while the social factor to collaborative work is new.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine and collect coordination and awareness mechanisms examples in literature to analyse them. Additionally, the purpose is to provide a first overview of mechanisms and to classify them by investigating their commonalities. Beside this thesis should give incentive for further investigations to investigate coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially integrated ECS.
Hydraulic engineering and thus construction materials are necessary to enable the navigability of water ways. Since, a variety of natural as well as artificial materials are used, this materials are world wide tested on a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on the environment. To determine the potential release, it is important to identify and to understand key mechanisms which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. A limited correlation between the conditions used in regulatory tests and those found in environmental systems is given and hence, often the significance of results from standardised tests on construction materials is questioned, since they are not designed to mimic environmental conditions.
In Germany industrial by-products are used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Especially the by-product copper slag is used during the last 40 years for the construction of embankments, groynes and coastal protection. On the one hand, this material has a high density and natural resources (landscape) are protected. One the other hand, the material contains high quantities of metal(loid)s. Therefore the copper slag (product name: iron silicate stones) is very suitable as test material. Metal(loid)s examined were As, Sb and Mo as representatives for (hydr)oxide forming elements and Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied as representatives for elements forming cations during the release.
Questions addressed in this Thesis were: (i) can we transfer the results from batch experiments to construction scenarios under the prevalent environmental conditions, (ii) which long-term trends exist for the release of metal(loid)s from copper slags and (iii) how environmental conditions influence the leaching of metal(loid)s from water construction materials?
To answer the first question the surface depending release of the metal(loid)s from the construction materials was examined. Therefore, batch leaching experiments with different particle sizes and a constant liquid/solid ratio were performed. In a second step a comparison between different methods for the determination of the specific surface area of armour stones with a 3D laser scanning method as a reference were performed. In a last step it was possible to show that via a roughness factor the results of the specific surface area from small stones, measured with gas adsorption, can be connected with the results from armour stones, determined with an aluminium foil method. Based on calculations of the specific surface area, it was possible to significantly improve catchment scale calculation about the release of metal(loid)s and to evaluate a potential impact of construction materials in hydraulic engineering on the water chemistry of rivers and streams.
To answer the second question long-term leaching diffuse gradient in thin films supported experiments were performed for half a year. Diffuse gradients in thin films (DGT) is an in situ method to passive sample metal(loid)s in water, sediments and soils. They were used as a sink for metal(loid)s in the eluate to provide solution equilibriums. Thus the exchange of the eluent, which is performed normally in long-term experiments, was superfluous and long-term effects under undisturbed conditions were studied. The long-term leaching experiments with DGT have proven to be capable (i) to differentiate between the depletion of the material surface and the solution equilibriums and (ii) to study sorption processes with or without a further release of the analytes. This means for the practically relevant test material copper slag that: (i) the cations Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb are confirmed to be released from the slag over the whole time period of six months, (ii) a surface depletion of Zn was detected, and (iii) that the (hydr)oxide forming elements As, Mo and Sb were released from the slag over the hole periods of six months but the release was masked by adsorption to Fe-oxide colloids, which were formed during the leaching experiments. It was confirmed, that sulphide minerals are the main source for long-term release of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mo.
To answer the third question short-term leaching experiments simulating environmental conditions in hydraulic engineering were performed. One factor is the salinity. The influence of this parameter was tested in batch experiments with sea salt solution (30 g/l), river Rhine water, ultra pure water and in addition with different NaCl concentration (5, 10, 20 and 30 g/l). In general, the ionic strength is an important factor for the metal(loid) release but the composition of the water (e.g. the HCO3- content) may superimpose this effect. Therefore, the concentrations of the metal(loid)s in the experiments with ultra-pure water spiked with sea salt or native river water and the ultra-pure water spiked with NaCl were significantly different. In a second experiment the influence of the environmental parameters and the interactions between the environmental parameters pH (4–10), sediment content (0 g–3.75 g), temperature (4 °C–36 °C) and ionic strength (0 g/l–30 g/l NaCl) on the release of metal(loid)s from the test material was examined. The statistical Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to study the influence of these factors as well as their interactions. All studied factors may impact the release of metal(loid)s from the test material to the eluent, whereas the release and the partitioning between sediment and eluate of metal(loid)s was impacted by interactions between the studied factors. The main processes were sorption, complexation, solubility, buffering and ion exchange. In addition, by separating the sediment from the slag after the experiments by magnetic separation, the enrichment of metal(loid)s in the sediment was visible. Thus, the sediment was the most important factor for the release of the metal(loid)s, via pH, temperature and ionic strength, because the sediment acted as a sink.
Freshwaters are of immense importance for human well-being.
Nevertheless, they are currently facing unprecedented levels of threat from habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species and
To prevent risks to aquatic ecosystems, chemical substances, like agricultural pesticides, have to pass environmental risk assessment (ERA) before entering the market.
Concurrently, large-scale environmental monitoring is used for surveillance of biological and chemical conditions in freshwaters.
This thesis examines statistical methods currently used in ERA.
Moreover, it presents a national-scale compilation of chemical monitoring data, an analysis of drivers and dynamics of chemical pollution in streams and, provides a large-scale risk assessment by combination with results from ERA.
Additionally, software tools have been developed to integrate different datasets used in ERA.
The thesis starts with a brief introduction to ERA and environmental monitoring and gives an overview of the objectives of the thesis.
Chapter 2 addresses experimental setups and their statistical analyses using simulations.
The results show that current designs exhibit unacceptably low statistical power, that statistical methods chosen to fit the type of data provide higher power and that statistical practices in ERA need to be revised.
In chapter 3 we compiled all available pesticide monitoring data from Germany.
Hereby, we focused on small streams, similar to those considered in ERA and used threshold concentrations derived during ERA for a large-scale assessment of threats to freshwaters from pesticides.
This compilation resulted in the most comprehensive dataset on pesticide exposure currently available for Germany.
Using state-of-the-art statistical techniques, that explicitly take the limits of quantification into account, we demonstrate that 25% of small streams are at threat from pesticides.
In particular neonicotinoid pesticides are responsible for these threats.
These are associated with agricultural intensity and can be detected even at low levels of agricultural use.
Moreover, our results indicated that current monitoring underestimates pesticide risks, because of a sampling decoupled from precipitation events.
Additionally, we provide a first large-scale study of annual pesticide exposure dynamics.
Chapters 4 and 5 describe software solutions to simplify and accelerate the integration of data from ERA, environmental monitoring and ecotoxicology that is indispensable for the development of landscape-level risk assessment.
Overall, this thesis contributes to the emerging discipline of statistical ecotoxicology and shows that pesticides pose a large-scale threat to small streams.
Environmental monitoring can provide a post-authorisation feedback to ERA.
However, to protect freshwater ecosystems ERA and environmental monitoring need to be further refined and we provide software solutions to utilise existing data for this purpose.
Agricultural land-use may lead to brief pulse exposures of pesticides in edge-of-field streams, potentially resulting in adverse effects on aquatic macrophytes, invertebrates and ecosystem functions. The higher tier risk assessment is mainly based on pond mesocosms which are not designed to mimic stream-typical conditions. Relatively little is known on exposure and effect assessment using stream mesocosms.
Thus the present thesis evaluates the appliacability of the stream mesocosms to mimic stream-typical pulse exposures, to assess resulting effects on flora and fauna and to evaluate aquatic-terrestrial food web coupling. The first objective was to mimic stream-typical pulse exposure scenarios with different durations (≤ 1 to ≥ 24 hours). These exposure scenarios established using a fluorescence tracer were the methodological basis for the effect assessment of an herbicide and an insecticide. In order to evaluate the applicability of stream mesocosms for regulatory purposes, the second objective was to assess effects on two aquatic macrophytes following a 24-h pulse exposure with the herbicide iofensulfuron-sodium (1, 3, 10 and 30 µg/L; n = 3). Growth inhibition of up to 66 and 45% was observed for the total shoot length of Myriophyllum spicatum and Elodea canadensis, respectively. Recovery of this endpoint could be demonstrated within 42 days for both macrophytes. The third objective was to assess effects on structural and functional endpoints following a 6-h pulse exposure of the pyrethroid ether etofenprox (0.05, 0.5 and 5 µg/L; n = 4). The most sensitive structural (abundance of Cloeon simile) and functional (feeding rates of Asellus aquaticus) endpoint revealed significant effects at 0.05 µg/L etofenprox. This concentration was below field-measured etofenprox concentrations and thus suggests that pulse exposures adversely affect invertebrate populations and ecosystem functions in streams. Such pollutions of streams may also result in decreased emergence of aquatic insects and potentially lead to an insect-mediated transfer of pollutants to adjacent food webs. Test systems capable to assess aquatic-terrestrial effects are not yet integrated in mesocosm approaches but might be of interest for substances with bioaccumulation potential. Here, the fourth part provides an aquatic-terrestrial model ecosystem capable to assess cross-ecosystem effects. Information on the riparian food web such as the contribution of aquatic (up to 71%) and terrestrial (up to 29%) insect prey to the diet of the riparian spider Tetragnatha extensa was assessed via stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ15N). Thus, the present thesis provides the methodological basis to assess aquatic-terrestrial pollutant transfer and effects on the riparian food web.
Overall the results of this thesis indicate, that stream mesocosms can be used to mimic stream-typical pulse exposures of pesticides, to assess resulting effects on macrophytes and invertebrates within prospective environmental risk assessment (ERA) and to evaluate changes in riparian food webs.
This thesis presents novel approaches for integrating context information into probabilistic models. Data from social media is typically associated with metadata, which includes context information such as timestamps, geographical coordinates or links to user profiles. Previous studies showed the benefits of using such context information in probabilistic models, e.g.\ improved predictive performance. In practice, probabilistic models which account for context information still play a minor role in data analysis. There are multiple reasons for this. Existing probabilistic models often are complex, the implementation is difficult, implementations are not publicly available, or the parameter estimation is computationally too expensive for large datasets. Additionally, existing models are typically created for a specific type of content and context and lack the flexibility to be applied to other data.
This thesis addresses these problems by introducing a general approach for modelling multiple, arbitrary context variables in probabilistic models and by providing efficient inference schemes and implementations.
In the first half of this thesis, the importance of context and the potential of context information for probabilistic modelling is shown theoretically and in practical examples. In the second half, the example of topic models is employed for introducing a novel approach to context modelling based on document clusters and adjacency relations in the context space. They can cope with areas of sparse observations and These models allow for the first time the efficient, explicit modelling of arbitrary context variables including cyclic and spherical context (such as temporal cycles or geographical coordinates). Using the novel three-level hierarchical multi-Dirichlet process presented in this thesis, the adjacency of ontext clusters can be exploited and multiple contexts can be modelled and weighted at the same time. Efficient inference schemes are derived which yield interpretable model parameters that allow analyse the relation between observations and context.
The provision of electronic participation services (e-participation) is a complex socio-technical undertaking that needs comprehensive design and implementation strategies. E-participation service providers, in the most cases administrations and governments, struggle with changing requirements that demand more transparency, better connectivity and increased collaboration among different actors. At the same time, less staff are available. As a result, recent research assesses only a minority of e-participation services as successful. The challenge is that the e-participation domain lacks comprehensive approaches to design and implement (e-)participation services. Enterprise Architecture (EA) frameworks have evolved in information systems research as an approach to guide the development of complex socio-technical systems. This approach can guide the design and implementation services, if the collection of organisations with the commonly held goal to provide participation services is understood as an E Participation Enterprise (EE). However, research & practice in the e participation domain has not yet exploited EA frameworks. Consequently, the problem scope that motivates this dissertation is the existing gap in research to deploy EA frameworks in e participation design and implementation. The research question that drives this research is: What methodical and technical guides do architecture frameworks provide that can be used to design and implement better and successful e participation?
This dissertation presents a literature study showing that existing approaches have not covered yet the challenges of comprehensive e participation design and implementation. Accordingly, the research moves on to investigate established EA frameworks such as the Zachman Framework, TOGAF, the DoDAF, the FEA, the ARIS, and the ArchiMate for their use. While the application of these frameworks in e participation design and implementation is possible, an integrated approach is lacking so far. The synthesis of literature review and practical insights in design and implementation of e participation services from four projects show the challenges of adapting architecture frameworks for this domain. However, the research shows also the potential of a combination of the different approaches. Consequently, the research moves on to develop the E-Participation Architecture Framework (EPART-Framework). Therefore, the dissertation applies design science research including literature review and action research. Two independent settings test an initial EPART-Framework version. The results yield into the EPART-Framework presented in this dissertation.
The EPART-Framework comprises of the EPART-Metamodel with six EPART-Viewpoints, which frame the stakeholder concerns: the Participation Scope, the Participant Viewpoint, the Participation Viewpoint, the Data & Information Viewpoint, the E-participation Viewpoint, and Implementation & Governance Viewpoint. The EPART-Method supports the stakeholders to design the EE and implement e participation and stores its output in an architecture description and a solution repository. It consists of five consecutive phases accompanied by requirements management: Initiation, Design, Implementation and Preparation, Participation, and Evaluation. The EPART-Framework fills the gap between the e participation domain and the enterprise architecture framework domain. The evaluation gives reasonable evidence that the framework is a valuable addition in academia and in practice to improve e-participation design and implementation. The same time, it shows opportunities for future research to extend and advance the framework.
Confidentiality, integrity, and availability are often listed as the three major requirements for achieving data security and are collectively referred to as the C-I-A triad. Confidentiality of data restricts the data access to authorized parties only, integrity means that the data can only be modified by authorized parties, and availability states that the data must always be accessible when requested. Although these requirements are relevant for any computer system, they are especially important in open and distributed networks. Such networks are able to store large amounts of data without having a single entity in control of ensuring the data's security. The Semantic Web applies to these characteristics as well as it aims at creating a global and decentralized network of machine-readable data. Ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of this data is therefore also important and must be achieved by corresponding security mechanisms. However, the current reference architecture of the Semantic Web does not define any particular security mechanism yet which implements these requirements. Instead, it only contains a rather abstract representation of security.
This thesis fills this gap by introducing three different security mechanisms for each of the identified security requirements confidentiality, integrity, and availability of Semantic Web data. The mechanisms are not restricted to the very basics of implementing each of the requirements and provide additional features as well. Confidentiality is usually achieved with data encryption. This thesis not only provides an approach for encrypting Semantic Web data, it also allows to search in the resulting ciphertext data without decrypting it first. Integrity of data is typically implemented with digital signatures. Instead of defining a single signature algorithm, this thesis defines a formal framework for signing arbitrary Semantic Web graphs which can be configured with various algorithms to achieve different features. Availability is generally supported by redundant data storage. This thesis expands the classical definition of availability to compliant availability which means that data must only be available as long as the access request complies with a set of predefined policies. This requirement is implemented with a modular and extensible policy language for regulating information flow control. This thesis presents each of these three security mechanisms in detail, evaluates them against a set of requirements, and compares them with the state of the art and related work.
In order to enhance the company’s appeal for potential employees and improve the satisfaction of already salaried workers, it is necessary to offer a variety of work-life balance measures. But as their implementation causes time and financial costs, a prioritization of measures is needed. To express a recommendation for companies, this study is led by the questions if there are work-life balance measures which have more impact on employee satisfaction than others, how big the relative impact of work-life balance measures on job satisfaction in comparison to other work and private life variables is, if there is a relation between the effectiveness of measures and their use and if there is a difference between the measures which are most important from the employees’ perspective and the companies’ offers.
These questions are formulated in eight research hypotheses which are examined in a quantitative research design with online survey data from 289 employees of fifteen different German companies. The formation of a hierarchy of the effectiveness of measures towards job satisfaction as well as the investigation of the relative impact in comparison to other variables is performed using a multiple regression analysis, whilst the differences between employees’ expectations and the availability of offers are examined with t-tests.
Support in childcare, support in voluntary activities and teambuilding events have a significantly higher impact on job satisfaction than other work-life balance measures, and their potential use is higher than the actual use which leads to the conclusion that there is yet potential for companies to improve their employees’ satisfaction by implementing these measures. In addition, flexible work hours, flexible work locations and free time and overtime accounts are the most important measures from the employees’ point of view and already widely offered by the surveyed companies. In general, the overall use of the available measures and the quantity of offered measures are more important with regard to job satisfaction than the specific kind of measure. In addition, work-life balance measures are more important towards job satisfaction for younger people.