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Point Rendering
(2021)

In this thesis different methods for rendering point data are shown and compared with each other. The methods can be divided into two categories. For one visual methods are introduced that strictly deal with the displaying of point primitves. The main problem here lies in the depiction of surfaces since point data, unlike traditional triangle meshes, doesn't contain any connectivity information. On the other hand data strucutres are shown that enable real-time rendering of large point clouds. Point clouds often contain large amounts of data since they are mostly generated through 3D scanning processes such as laser scanning and photogrammetry.

This Bachelor thesis illustrates the connection between the technologies Augmented and Virtual Reality and creates an expedient interdependency of the two forms of presentation. For this purpose, an application in the area of interior design has been implemented, where designing a room can be made more intuitive by using Augmented Reality, as it provides a realistic impression of the planned apartment with a Virtual Reality simulation. Based on the relevant knowledge, a project-concept has been drafted and realized by using several development systems. During a series of tests this implementation has been evaluated and subsequently optimized. The result confirms the assumption, that Augmented and Virtual Reality with their strengths can be combined to an evident solution. This thesis is relevant for computer science students as well as for people interested in innovative solutions.

This thesis tests several methods and measures in pathtracing for selecting either the Line Space or the Bounding Volume Hierarchy data structure to make use of the advantages of both. The structures are defined locally around each object and each Line Space shaft contains one candidate ID each. All implementation is done as a C++ and OpenGL framework with compute shaders handling the pathtracing and Line Space generation. The measures include the probability distribution, the effect dependency, as well as a distance threshold and are tested against several different scenes. In most situations, the results show a noticeable increase in performance, partly only with minor visual differences, with the probability measure producing the highest quality images for a given performance. The fundamental problems of the Line Space concering the high memory consumption and a long generation time compared to the BVH still persist, despite the object local structure, a minimal amount of data per shaft and the compute shader implementation.

This thesis explores different approaches for the acceleration of raytracing calculations on the graphics processing unit (GPU). For that a voxel grid is used and extended by the linespace data structure. The linespace consists of direction based shafts and stores the objects located in those shafts in a candidate list. Different methods for the sorting and traversal of the linespace are presented and evaluated. The shown methods cannot provide a speed up of the frame rate without resulting in a loss of image quality.

This thesis presents the use of a local linespace data structure, which is designed and implemented on the basis of an existing GPU-based raytra- cer with a global linespace data structure. For each scene object, an N-tree is generated whose nodes each have a linespace. This saves informations about existing geometry in its shafts. A shaft represents a volume between two faces on the outside of the node. This allows a faster skipping of em- pty spaces during raytracing. Identical objects can access already calcula- ted linespaces, which can reduce the memory requirement by up to 94.13% and the initialization time of the datastructure by up to 97.15%. Due to the local access possibilities dynamic scenes can be visualized. An increase in quality can also be observed.

This thesis presents a novel technique in computer graphics to simulate realtime
global illumination using path tracing. Path tracing is done with compute shaders on the graphics card (GPU) to perform rendering in a highly parallelized manner. To improve the overall performance of tracing rays, the Line Space is used as an acceleration data structure in different variations, resulting in better
empty space skipping. The Line Space saves scene information based on a previous voxelization in direction-dependent shafts and is generated and traversed on the GPU. With this procedure, indirect lighting and soft shadows can be computed in a physically correct way. Furthermore, using the Line Space, path tracing can be performed mostly independent of the complexity of the scene geometry with over 100 frames per second, which is truly real-time and much faster than using a comparable voxel grid. The image quality is not affected negatively by this technique and the shadow quality is in most cases much better compared to shadow-mapping.

Simulation von Schnee
(2015)

Physic simulations allow the creation of dynamic scenes on the computer. Computer generated images become lively and find use in movies, games and engineering applications. GPGPU techniques make use of the graphics card to simulate physics. The simulation of dynamic snow is still little researched. The Material Point Method is the first technique which is capable of showing the dynamics andrncharacteristics of snow.
The hybrid use of Lagrangian particles and a regular cartesian grid enables solving of partial differential equations. Therefore articles are transformed to the grid. The grid velocities can then be updated with the calculation of gradients in an FEM-manner (finite element method). Finally grid node velocities are weight back to the particles to move them across the scene. This method is coupled with a constitutive model to cover the dynamic nature of snow. This include collisions and breaking.
This bachelor thesis connects the recent developments in GPGPU techniques of OpenGL with the Material Point Method to efficiently simulate visually compelling, dynamic snow scenes.

This thesis covers the mathematical background of ray-casting as well as an exemplary implementation on graphics processing units, using a modern programming interface. The implementation is embedded within an editor, which enables the user to activate optimizations of the algorithm. Techniques like transfer functions and local illumination are available for a more realistic visualization of materials. Moreover, the user interface gives access to features like importing volumes, let one define a custom transfer function, holds controls to adjust parameters of rendering and allows to activate further techniques, which are also subject of discussion in this thesis. Benefit of all shown techniques is measured, whether it is expected to be visual or on the part of performance.

The following thesis analyses the functionality and programming capabilitiesrnof compute shaders. For this purpose, chapter 2 gives an introductionrnto compute shaders by showing how they work and how they can be programmed. In addition, the interaction of compute shaders and OpenGL 4.3 is shown through two introductory examples. Chapter 3 describes an NBodyrnsimulation that has been implemented in order to show the computational power of compute shaders and the use of shared memory. Then it is shown in chapter 4 how compute shaders can be used for physical simulationsrnand where problems may arise. In chapter 5 a specially conceived and implemented algorithm for detecting lines in images is described and then compared with the Hough transform. Lastly, a final conclusion is drawn in chapter 6.