Pelagic oxyclines, the transition zone between oxygen rich surface waters and oxygen depleted deep waters, are a common characteristic of eutrophic lakes during summer stratification. They can have tremendous effects on the biodiversity and the ecosystem functioning of lakes and, to add insult to injury, are expected to become more frequent and more pronounced as climate warming progresses. On these grounds, this thesis endeavors to advance the understanding of formation, persistence, and consequences of pelagic oxyclines: We test, whether the formation of metalimnetic oxygen minima is intrinsically tied to a locally enhanced oxygen consuming process, investigate the relative importance of vertical physical oxygen transport and biochemical oxygen consumption for the persistence of pelagic oxyclines, and finally assess their potential consequences for whole lake cycling. To pursue these objectives, the present thesis nearly exclusively resorts to in situ measurements. Field campaigns were conducted at three lakes in Germany featuring different types of oxyclines and resolved either a short (hours to days) or a long (weeks to months) time scale. Measurements comprised temperature, current velocity, and concentrations of oxygen and reduced substances in high temporal and vertical resolution. Additionally, vertical transport was estimated by applying the eddy correlation technique within the pelagic region for the first time. The thesis revealed, that the formation of metalimnetic oxygen minima does not necessarily depend on locally enhanced oxygen depletion, but can solely result from gradients and curvatures of oxygen concentration and depletion and their relative position to each other. Physical oxygen transport was found to be relevant for oxycline persistence when it considerably postponed anoxia on a long time scale. However, its influence on oxygen dynamics was minor on short time scales, although mixing and transport were highly variable. Biochemical consumption always dominated the fate of oxygen in pelagic oxyclines. It was primarily determined by the oxidative breakdown of organic matter originating from the epilimnion, whereas in meromictic lakes, the oxidation of reduced substances dominated. Beyond that, the results of the thesis emphasize that pelagic oxyclines can be a hotspot of mineralization and, hence, short-circuit carbon and nutrient cycling in the upper part of the water column. Overall, the present thesis highlights the importance of considering physical transport as well as biochemical cycling in future studies.
Die Analyse ortsbezogener Strukturdaten und Merkmale ist eine der wesentlichen Voraussetzungen für die Bewertung von Standorten und Räumen. Durch die Erfassung der lokalen Ausprägung ausgewählter Standortfaktoren und unter Zuhilfenahme eines Geographischen Informationssystems werden in der vorliegenden Dissertation die Städte und Gemeinden des hessischen Rheingau-Taunus-Kreises kategorisiert und miteinander verglichen. Hierbei erfolgt eine besondere Fokussierung auf die lokal bestehende technische und soziale Infrastruktur, um vorrangig das vorhandene Gewerbe- und Wohnumfeld sowie die darüber hinaus existierenden räumlichen Disparitäten eingehend veranschaulichen und beurteilen zu können.
Coordination and awareness mechanisms are important in systems for Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) and traditional groupware systems. It has been a key focus of research into collaborative groupware and its capability to enable people to efficiently collaborate and coordinate work. Until now, no classification of the mechanisms has been undertaken to identify commonalities and differences in coordination and awareness mechanisms and to show their significance in collaborative environments. In addition, there is a little investigation of coordination and awareness mechanisms in new forms of groupware such as socially enabled Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS). Indeed, both in science and in practices, ECS incorporating social software have become increasingly important. Based on the combination of traditional groupware and social software, ECS also include coordination and awareness mechanisms that may simplify collaboration, but these have not yet been investigated.
Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to identify coordination and awareness mechanisms in the academic literature to provide a general overview of those mechanisms examples. Additionally, this thesis aims to classify the mechanism examples. Based on a deep literature analysis, concepts described in literature are chosen and applied with the intension to analyse the mechanisms and to reach a classification. Based on the classification of the identified mechanisms their commonalities and differences are examined and described to gain a better understanding of them. For illustration purpose, examples of coordination and awareness mechanisms and their application are portrayed. The mechanisms examples refer to the classification groups derived. The selection of the mechanisms for the visualization is based on significant differences in their functionality. Subsequently, the selected mechanisms, more based on traditional groupware, are checked to a limited extend whether they can be found in socially enabled ECS. The collaborative platform of IBM Connections serves as a practical example of ECS incorporating social software. IBM Connections is used at the University of Koblenz to run the platform "UniConnect". On the platform it is investigated which of the identified mechanisms examples of the literature are applied in IBM Connections and which additional mechanisms are created by users. This work is the first step in the study of coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially-enabled ECS. In addition, it is expected to detect new mechanisms which are used while the social factor to collaborative work is new.
The purpose of this thesis is to examine and collect coordination and awareness mechanisms examples in literature to analyse them. Additionally, the purpose is to provide a first overview of mechanisms and to classify them by investigating their commonalities. Beside this thesis should give incentive for further investigations to investigate coordination and awareness mechanisms in socially integrated ECS.
Hydraulic engineering and thus construction materials are necessary to enable the navigability of water ways. Since, a variety of natural as well as artificial materials are used, this materials are world wide tested on a potential release of dangerous substances to prevent adverse effects on the environment. To determine the potential release, it is important to identify and to understand key mechanisms which are decisive for the release of hazardous substances. A limited correlation between the conditions used in regulatory tests and those found in environmental systems is given and hence, often the significance of results from standardised tests on construction materials is questioned, since they are not designed to mimic environmental conditions.
In Germany industrial by-products are used as armour stones in hydraulic engineering. Especially the by-product copper slag is used during the last 40 years for the construction of embankments, groynes and coastal protection. On the one hand, this material has a high density and natural resources (landscape) are protected. One the other hand, the material contains high quantities of metal(loid)s. Therefore the copper slag (product name: iron silicate stones) is very suitable as test material. Metal(loid)s examined were As, Sb and Mo as representatives for (hydr)oxide forming elements and Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied as representatives for elements forming cations during the release.
Questions addressed in this Thesis were: (i) can we transfer the results from batch experiments to construction scenarios under the prevalent environmental conditions, (ii) which long-term trends exist for the release of metal(loid)s from copper slags and (iii) how environmental conditions influence the leaching of metal(loid)s from water construction materials?
To answer the first question the surface depending release of the metal(loid)s from the construction materials was examined. Therefore, batch leaching experiments with different particle sizes and a constant liquid/solid ratio were performed. In a second step a comparison between different methods for the determination of the specific surface area of armour stones with a 3D laser scanning method as a reference were performed. In a last step it was possible to show that via a roughness factor the results of the specific surface area from small stones, measured with gas adsorption, can be connected with the results from armour stones, determined with an aluminium foil method. Based on calculations of the specific surface area, it was possible to significantly improve catchment scale calculation about the release of metal(loid)s and to evaluate a potential impact of construction materials in hydraulic engineering on the water chemistry of rivers and streams.
To answer the second question long-term leaching diffuse gradient in thin films supported experiments were performed for half a year. Diffuse gradients in thin films (DGT) is an in situ method to passive sample metal(loid)s in water, sediments and soils. They were used as a sink for metal(loid)s in the eluate to provide solution equilibriums. Thus the exchange of the eluent, which is performed normally in long-term experiments, was superfluous and long-term effects under undisturbed conditions were studied. The long-term leaching experiments with DGT have proven to be capable (i) to differentiate between the depletion of the material surface and the solution equilibriums and (ii) to study sorption processes with or without a further release of the analytes. This means for the practically relevant test material copper slag that: (i) the cations Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb are confirmed to be released from the slag over the whole time period of six months, (ii) a surface depletion of Zn was detected, and (iii) that the (hydr)oxide forming elements As, Mo and Sb were released from the slag over the hole periods of six months but the release was masked by adsorption to Fe-oxide colloids, which were formed during the leaching experiments. It was confirmed, that sulphide minerals are the main source for long-term release of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Mo.
To answer the third question short-term leaching experiments simulating environmental conditions in hydraulic engineering were performed. One factor is the salinity. The influence of this parameter was tested in batch experiments with sea salt solution (30 g/l), river Rhine water, ultra pure water and in addition with different NaCl concentration (5, 10, 20 and 30 g/l). In general, the ionic strength is an important factor for the metal(loid) release but the composition of the water (e.g. the HCO3- content) may superimpose this effect. Therefore, the concentrations of the metal(loid)s in the experiments with ultra-pure water spiked with sea salt or native river water and the ultra-pure water spiked with NaCl were significantly different. In a second experiment the influence of the environmental parameters and the interactions between the environmental parameters pH (4–10), sediment content (0 g–3.75 g), temperature (4 °C–36 °C) and ionic strength (0 g/l–30 g/l NaCl) on the release of metal(loid)s from the test material was examined. The statistical Design of Experiments (DoE) was used to study the influence of these factors as well as their interactions. All studied factors may impact the release of metal(loid)s from the test material to the eluent, whereas the release and the partitioning between sediment and eluate of metal(loid)s was impacted by interactions between the studied factors. The main processes were sorption, complexation, solubility, buffering and ion exchange. In addition, by separating the sediment from the slag after the experiments by magnetic separation, the enrichment of metal(loid)s in the sediment was visible. Thus, the sediment was the most important factor for the release of the metal(loid)s, via pH, temperature and ionic strength, because the sediment acted as a sink.
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das thermochemische Wechselwirkungsverhalten verschiedener Magnesiakohlenstoffmaterialen in Abhängigkeit verschiedener Einflussgrößen wissenschaftlich untersucht. Schwerpunkte der experimentellen Arbeiten bilden thermoanalytische Experimente, Gefügeuntersuchungen der Magnesiakohlenstoff-Proben sowie thermodyna-mische Berechnungen und Auswertungen durch CAT (Computer Aided Thermochemistry) mittels des Softwarepakets FactSage.
Erster Themenbereich dieser Arbeit ist die Untersuchung des Einflusses der in dem Rohstoff Magnesia enthaltenen mineralogischen Nebenphasen Merwinit (C3MS2), Monticellit (CMS) und Belit (C2S) auf den carbothermisch induzierten Verschleiß im MgO-C-Material. Für die Messreihen wurden die Nebenphasen eigens synthetisiert und hiermit MgO-C-Nebenphase-Modellwerkstoffe hergestellt. Die Nebenphase Monticellit ist unbeständig gegenüber der carbothermischen Reduktion. Monticellit wird im MgO-C-Gefüge durch Kohlenstoff reduziert und hieraus ergibt sich ein erhöhter Gewichtsverlust des Probenmaterials. Auch Merwinit wird bei T = 1600°C reduziert, der Gewichtsverlust wird dadurch allerdings nicht erhöht. Belit ist im MgO-C-Gefüge stabil gegenüber carbothermischer Reduktion.
Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt der Arbeit lag auf der Untersuchung des Einflusses des klassischen Antioxidans Aluminium auf die thermochemische Stabilität von MgO-C. Bei geringen Sauerstoffpartialdrücken ist die Reaktion des Aluminium-Metalls bzw. des bereits zu Al4C3 carbidisierten Aluminiums mit dem steineigenen Periklas unter Mg(g)-Bildung möglich, was einen erhöhten Gewichtsverlust zur Folge hat. Aber auch nach der Oxidation zu Al2O3 bzw. Spinell liegt Aluminium in signifikanten Mengen als Al(g) und Al2O(g) in der Gasphase vor und greift des Weiteren die Nebenphasen an, was ebenfalls zu einem messbaren Gewichtsverlust führt.
Dritter Arbeitsschwerpunkt war die Untersuchung des Einflusses des Umgebungsdruckes auf die carbothermische Reduktion von MgO. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass der Druck sich in zweierlei Hinsicht auf die carbothermische Reduktion von MgO auswirkt. Zum einen bewirkt ein sinkender Umgebungsdruck eine Beschleunigung der carbothermischen Reduktion durch die Verschiebung des thermodynamischen Gleichgewichts auf die Produktseite. Des Weiteren sorgt er für einen schnelleren Abtransport der Produktgase vom Reaktionsort und ver-hindert somit die Einstellung eines lokalen Gleichgewichts im Gefüge. Dritter Effekt ist die mit steigendem Druck verstärkt ablaufende Kohlenstoffoxidation durch Umgebungssauerstoff, da die Sauerstoffmenge in der Umgebung des MgO-C-Materials vom Umgebungsdruck bestimmt wird. Für die Geschwindigkeit des thermochemischen Verschleißes von Magnesiakohlenstoffmaterialien, der immer eine Kombination aus Kohlenstoffoxidation und carbothermischer Reduktion darstellt, bedeutet dies, dass sie in Abhängigkeit vom Umgebungsdruck in unterschiedlichem Ausmaß von diesen beiden Reaktionen beeinflusst wird.
Freshwaters are of immense importance for human well-being.
Nevertheless, they are currently facing unprecedented levels of threat from habitat loss and degradation, overexploitation, invasive species and
To prevent risks to aquatic ecosystems, chemical substances, like agricultural pesticides, have to pass environmental risk assessment (ERA) before entering the market.
Concurrently, large-scale environmental monitoring is used for surveillance of biological and chemical conditions in freshwaters.
This thesis examines statistical methods currently used in ERA.
Moreover, it presents a national-scale compilation of chemical monitoring data, an analysis of drivers and dynamics of chemical pollution in streams and, provides a large-scale risk assessment by combination with results from ERA.
Additionally, software tools have been developed to integrate different datasets used in ERA.
The thesis starts with a brief introduction to ERA and environmental monitoring and gives an overview of the objectives of the thesis.
Chapter 2 addresses experimental setups and their statistical analyses using simulations.
The results show that current designs exhibit unacceptably low statistical power, that statistical methods chosen to fit the type of data provide higher power and that statistical practices in ERA need to be revised.
In chapter 3 we compiled all available pesticide monitoring data from Germany.
Hereby, we focused on small streams, similar to those considered in ERA and used threshold concentrations derived during ERA for a large-scale assessment of threats to freshwaters from pesticides.
This compilation resulted in the most comprehensive dataset on pesticide exposure currently available for Germany.
Using state-of-the-art statistical techniques, that explicitly take the limits of quantification into account, we demonstrate that 25% of small streams are at threat from pesticides.
In particular neonicotinoid pesticides are responsible for these threats.
These are associated with agricultural intensity and can be detected even at low levels of agricultural use.
Moreover, our results indicated that current monitoring underestimates pesticide risks, because of a sampling decoupled from precipitation events.
Additionally, we provide a first large-scale study of annual pesticide exposure dynamics.
Chapters 4 and 5 describe software solutions to simplify and accelerate the integration of data from ERA, environmental monitoring and ecotoxicology that is indispensable for the development of landscape-level risk assessment.
Overall, this thesis contributes to the emerging discipline of statistical ecotoxicology and shows that pesticides pose a large-scale threat to small streams.
Environmental monitoring can provide a post-authorisation feedback to ERA.
However, to protect freshwater ecosystems ERA and environmental monitoring need to be further refined and we provide software solutions to utilise existing data for this purpose.